It's actually a common misconception that ANH contains the line confirming that the rebels who captured the plans died. That line is, in fact, the Bothans line uttered by Mon Mothma in ROTJ. The only reference to the rebels who stole the plans in ANH is contained in the crawl, which says, "Rebel spaceships, striking from a hidden base, have won their first victory against the evil Galactic Empire. During the battle, Rebel spies managed to steal secret plans to the Empire’s ultimate weapon, the DEATH STAR, an armored space station with enough power to destroy an entire planet."
There's no direct confirmation that anyone died on the mission, and the rebels aren't mentioned at all in ANH after that moment, so Rogue One could've gotten away with them surviving.